Reconstruction Memory Survey Purpose: To investigate how people remember stories, pictures or faces. Procedure: Natural experiment. Participants were shown one of eight different stories and paintings and they were asked to replicate stories and paintings over and over over time. Survey results: Participants not distinguish the story completely, but distort the story. The change is consistent with the participants' Western assumptions and expectations.
Numerous investigations have been conducted on the reconstruction of memories about the legal system and the crime related issues. Bartlett's 1932 study "The Battle of Ghosts" shows that memories are composed and changed during recalling process. When prompted, rebuild based on mood / attitude and activation pattern. It is susceptible to external factors and therefore shows low reliability and inaccuracy of memory. Loftus and Palmer (1974) made a reconstruction hypothesis using the famous car destruction research. In the first experiment, 45 participants were divided into 9 groups and screened as short films of traffic accidents. Participants who gave a "collapsed" stimulus responded with an average estimated velocity (mph) of 40.8, but "connected" people expressed at least a violent meaning and responded at 31.8 (mph).
The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the impact of major problems on recall of accidents. In that case, the recall was measured by the perception speed of a car accident. This survey is a reproduction of the experiment done by Loftus and Palmer (1974) on the interaction between language and memory. The research hypothesis states that participants asked about the main problem on the speed of the car before the accident are answered according to the severity of the verb used to explain the accident. Experiments utilized independent measurement designs and chose participants by random sampling. The results indicate that the implications (patterns) of the language influence the retrieval of memory and may lead to reconstruction of erroneous memory. In addition, the results show a clear association between the wording of the question and the recall speed (mph) of participants, which is consistent with the first study by Loftus and Palmer.
The concept of rebuilding memory is related to schema theory. In the late 1930's, people thought that memory is accompanied by memorizing information provided to us, but Bartlett says that memory is more complicated than this because schema-like knowledge influences our memory. I think that there are many. According to Bartlett, we will organize our memories in a way that is consistent with previous experiences and schemas. When we remember the events, our memory gap will be rebuilt according to our model. Bartlett aims to investigate the influence of patterns on participants' recall. The model includes previous expectations, attitudes, bias, stereotypes. This research is based on Bartlett's schema theory and states that memory includes active reconstruction. According to this theory what people remember depends on two information factors presented to us and erroneous information we have about schema beliefs.